5 years ago my former small groups pastor, Frank Chiapperino, and I did a fun back-and-forth blog series about small groups. I took that down, because many misunderstood the purpose of the article. That was a mistake. I’m a fan of well-led, rightly focused small groups. Not the other kind…
A few years ago I brought in a nationally recognized pastor to do some consulting for our church. One of the things I remember the most about my time with him was a side conversation we had about small groups.
“I haven’t really figured out the small group thing,” I confessed to him.
“Well, Brian, that’s because they don’t work. Small groups are things that trick us into believing we’re serious about making disciples. The problem is 90% of small groups never produce one single disciple, ever. They help Christians make shallow friendships for sure. They’re great at helping Christians feel a tenuous connection to their local church. And they do a bang-up job of teaching Christians how to act like other Christians in the evangelical Christian subculture. But when it comes to creating the kind of holistic disciples Jesus envisioned, the jury’s decision came back a long time ago – small groups just aren’t working.”
“Finally,” I said, “I’ve met someone who’s got the guts to euthanize this small group sacred cow.”
I have been leading, participating in, championing, and applauding the efforts of small groups for the last 20 years of my ministry.
But now I’m done. In my opinion they just don’t work. Let me share why.
Church-Initiated “Small Groups” Begin From A Flawed Starting Point
For reasons that still escape me, soon after becoming a Christian at age eighteen, Deron Brickey, Dave Polonia, Jeff Snyder and I started hanging out with one another.
Soon that group grew to 10-12 friends. We laughed together, prayed together, studied the Bible together, ate together, evangelized together, and served the poor together. Even though we had no leader, no real set meeting time, no agenda, and no plan or focus, it was through these friends that I made incredible strides towards becoming a holistic disciple of Jesus.
And it all happened by accident.
In fact, looking back on my 25 years of following Christ, here’s what I’ve noticed: every “small group” I’ve ever been in that helped me grow as a disciple started by what appeared to be an accident.
I wasn’t looking for it. I wasn’t interested in joining a “small group” in the least. And in many respects I didn’t even feel a “need” to grow spiritually.
Most of all I wasn’t participating in some stupid church-wide small group sign-up initiative the Senior Pastor dreamed up to jack up small group attendance because he heard church analysts say you should always maintain a certain ratio of worship attendees to small group participants.
It just happened, naturally and spontaneously.
Those experiences couldn’t have been planned, even if I tried. And for the most part that’s exactly how it’s been happening in the Christian community for, say, I don’t know, the last 1,960 years. That is until we westerners, particularly Americans, starting screwing it up.
Well intentioned Christians, armed with the latest insights in organizational theory, let their pragmatic and utilitarian hearts delude themselves into thinking they could organize, measure, and control the mystical working of the Holy Spirit in community in order to consistently reproduce disciples in other contexts.
Then these people starting writing books and hosting seminars. And then church leaders like you and me bought into what they were saying because we didn’t recognize that the same faulty worldview that produced a mechanized approach to Christian community fostered a ready-made market in our hearts to consume their quick-fix solutions.
- So we came home, armed with our “101 Sure-Fire Discussion Starter” books and binders full of slick recruitment techniques, and started “small group ministries” at our churches.
- We preached powerful sermons.
- We cast vision.
- We contorted Acts 2 into saying what we needed it to say.
- We blathered on and on about all the “one another’s” in the Bible and about how if we met one time a week for 1.5 hours and followed a well-conceived discussion regime we could experience Acts 2 in all of its splendor and glory.
And what happened? You know what happened. They blew. Like big-time time.
And meanwhile, while our people were constrained by their obligation to the church and their sense of loyalty to us as leaders, their hearts searched for real community and an opportunity to grow as a disciple.
And it’s because we screwed it up from the start, like we Americans do with just about everything that is supposed to be a genuine work of the Holy Spirit.
What would happen if we euthanized all of our small groups, taught the value of discipleship and community, and then simply let the Holy Spirit do its work?
The Small Group Movement’s Achilles Heel
When I attended my very first church growth conference in 1992 a nationally known small group “expert” stood up and said,
“The way we say it at our church is, ‘If you can read, you can lead.’ If a Christian can read the questions in our study guide, they can lead a small group at our church.”
That’s easy, I thought. Too easy in fact. And ridiculous.
“If you can read, you can lead” is a great slogan for people who organize:
- a rugby team from your church
- or your knitting circle
- or the Saturday morning llama-riding group
But not for someone who has been recognized by the community of faith as someone who can lead others to become a disciple of Jesus and is in turn promoted (though the website, printed material, brochures, etc.) as such.
The Achilles heel of the modern-day small group movement is simple: Small groups don’t create disciples, disciples create disciples. And modern-day small groups are led, for the most part, by people who have attended the church, had a conversion experience, lead a reasonably moral life, and can read the study-guide questions, but are not disciples themselves.
American churches have lowered the bar of small group leadership so low that it’s simply ridiculous. In fact, it’s so ridiculous that most churches would be better off not even having small groups than to offer them with disciple-less leaders.
The argument most people make against small groups is flawed. The problem with small groups isn’t that they pool the group’s collective ignorance; it’s that they pool the group’s collective disobedience. And it’s not the small group leaders fault.
It’s the fault of the people who installed the leader and convinced him or her that they could lead their group to a place where they themselves have not gone.
Would Jesus Join A Small Group In Your Church?
Think about that for a moment. Forget about your goals. Forget about your motivations for offering them. Forget about all the supposed benefits of participating in one. Do you honestly think Jesus would join, lead, or start a small group within the existing structure of your small group’s ministry at your church?
Of course not. Not a chance. Not in a million years.
Because while your people are stuck in the “hairball” of your church’s ministry (to steal Gordon MacKenzie’s great line), Jesus would be out rubbing shoulders with people in your community, helping them to find their way back to God and teaching them to obey his teachings.
Jesus would be actually doing what small groups say they want/should/need to be doing, but they can’t, because they’re too busy being a “small group” inside the confines of your small group’s ministry infrastructure.
It’s like a jogging class at a community college where the instructor, instead of taking his or class jogging and commenting on technique while they’re actually jogging, stuffs everyone into a classroom and lectures to them three days a week and then gives them a final exam.
Disciples are created “out there.” Small groups, if not by their definition, definitely by their practice, all occur “in here.”
With few exceptions, modern-day small groups are great at producing:
- Christians sitting in circles, talking to one another inside a building
- Reading and commenting on the Bible
- Ranting about how they long to “get out there” and do something that matters
- Awkwardly ending their time by praying for “prayer requests”
- Going home unchallenged and unchanged
You would think that there’s a Small Groups Revised Version of the New Testament somewhere. In it Matthew 28:18-20 reads,
(18) Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. (19) Therefore stay where you are and make Christians of the people you already know, baptizing them in the name of American consumer Christianity, (20) and teaching them to sit in rooms with one another, read the Bible and pray for one another. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.
If the Groups Revised Version of Matthew 28:18-20 is the stated purpose, then most American small groups are nailing it.
In my humble opinion, the Americanized small group is a remnant of an impotent religious institution that can’t transition effectively into a post-Christian, postmodern world.
Thank God they worked in some instances, and in some contexts!
But for every story of success about a small group creating an authentic disciple, my hunch is there are three times as many failures (and that just takes into account the 10-30% of church attendees who actually participate in them).
If we had time to waste this wouldn’t be an urgent problem.
But we don’t.